Saturday, May 23, 2020

Business Plan for Mustard Boutique - 9962 Words

Executive Summary Overview Mustard Boutique is an upscale women’s clothing boutique that will open in June this year. Mustard means â€Å"If you have faith the size of a mustard seed, you will say to this mountain, ‘Move from here to there,’ and it will move; and nothing will be impossible for you.† Mustard boutique selections and exclusive personal style services, which include a detailed Style Assessment, will ensure that our customers are well dressed. Mustard is a woman-owned business organised as a Sole Proprietorship. Clothing for stylish women Mustard will carry Ready-to-Wear (RTW) designer and casual/contemporary apparel and accessories for women, and will be the exclusive Korean style. Unique amp; innovative Boutique†¦show more content†¦| 87,599 | Total Funding Required | 132,707 | Assets | | Non-cash Assets from Start-up | 80,099 | Cash Requirements from Start-up | 7,500 | Additional Cash Raised | 0 | Cash Balance on Starting Date | 7,500 | Total Assets | 87,599 | Liabilities and Capital | | Liabilities | | Current Borrowing | 0 | Long-term Liabilities | 90,000 | Accounts Payable (Outstanding Bills) | 0 | Other Current Liabilities (interest-free) | 0 | Total Liabilities | 90,000 | | | Capital | | Planned Investment | | Owner Injection | 41,707 | Investor | 1,000 | Other | 0 | Additional Investment Requirement | 0 | Total Planned Investment | 42,707 | Loss at Start-up (Start-up Expenses) | (45,108) | Total Capital | (2,401) | Total Capital and Liabilities | 87,599 | Total Funding | 132,707 | Start-up | Amount (RM) | Requirements | | Start-up Expenses | | Initial Deposit | 0 | Leasehold Improvements | 20,000 | Rent for Mo.of improvements | 3,000 | Inventory Analyst | 1,800 | Professional Fees | 1,050 | Insurance | 1,008 | General Start-up Costs | 6,900 | Marketing: Packaging, PR, Design | 11,350 | Total Start-up Expenses | 45,108 | Start-up Assets | | Cash Required | 7,500 | Start-up Inventory | 55,500 | Other Current Assets | 0 | Long-term Assets | 24,599 | Total Assets | 87,599 | Total Requirements | 132,707 | 2.2 Company Ownership Mustard has been established as a Sole Proprietorship due to theShow MoreRelatedThe Critical Issues Of Waste Management For A Large Luxury Brand Spa Essay2209 Words   |  9 Pagesmanagement and staff. 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Tuesday, May 12, 2020

Essay on “International and Domestic Oil Prices”

Essay on â€Å"International and Domestic Oil Prices† Introduction The involvement of the financial markets in the modern economies and the oil market is such that upwards of 60% of the crude prices are not determined by the supply and demand forces on the markets. Instead, leading hedge funds and banks, through the international oil exchanges in London and New York control the spot prices through oil futures (Rich, Streitfeld, Rampell, 2011). This has effectively crested more scope for speculation within the industry, which when coupled with the emergency of bond markets across the world, the scare of the exchanges markets losing an actual backing of the actual markets has arisen, with dire consequences on the predictability of oil prices. These have an ultimate effect in the economies of countries across the world. This paper seeks to assess the effects of the international oil prices on the US’ domestic economy as well as the economies of other nations across the world. The assessment includes an understanding of the role of speculation, oil exchanges, producing nations and other agents of the fuel prices, as well as the effects of their respective decisions on the consumer demand (Rich, Streitfeld, Rampell, 2011). International Oil Prices and the Domestic Economy The 1988 collapse of the OPEC administered system of pricing led to the emergence of the prices freely determined by the forces on the markets, which has survived to the present-day. The nationalizations of oil reserves and the collapse of the concessions system deprived multinational companies of the influence they enjoyed in determining the oil prices, leading to the emergence of exchanges and deals outside the horizontally and vertically integrated corporations. This was strengthened even further by the rising influence of non-OPEC producers, which in turn led into the development intricate markets across the world, including physical forwards, spot markets, options, futures and derivatives’ markets. The 24-hour trading and electronic markets, enabled by the rise of technology allowed greater access to the markets and with, multiple trading instruments. Under the new system, physical deliveries occur both through spot markets and futures, with the spot markets comprising a minority of the transactions because of the logistical difficulties associated with spot deliveries (Tang Wei, 2010). Crude Benchmarks and Pricing Long-term contracts stem from bilateral agreements for the delivery of crude oil shipments at pre-determined prices. The varied qualities of crude attract equally varied premiums (benchmarks), where the prices are determined by the price differential (D) and the benchmark crude price (PR). The price agreement for a spot or futures market involves agreements on the price differential (Fattouh B. , An Anatomy of the Crude Oil Pricing An Anatomy of the Crude Oil Pricing An Anatomy of the Crude Oil Pricing An Anatomy of the Crude Oil Pricing An An Anatomy of the Crude Oil Pricing System , 2011). The price differentials built in the Gross Products Worth of refining crude, rendering them hugely variable owing to the varied qualities of crude oil and perhaps most importantly, due to the changes in the relative supply and demand forces on the market for each variant of crude. In the recent three years for instance, the price differential between Arab Heavy and Arab Light crudes increased to reach upwards of $15 a barrel, with fuel oil being heavily supplied, despite the fact that diesel, which results from Arab Light’s saw shortages in the market (Fattouh, Kilian, Mahadeva, 2011). Benchmark differentials on the other hand are determined by the oil exporting nations, in consideration of the Gross Products Worth of the crude variant, announced up to a month prior to the loading of the products. The determination of the benchmarks builds in multiple lags, coupled with the use of dated figures, which in turn implies that the prices would least reflect the actual conditions on the market. Other nations, including Qatar and Abu Dhabi simply announce the Official Selling Prices, based on the Dubai-Oman Benchmark pricing system. Countries must not only ensure competitiveness of their crude, but also build into their pricing models the differences with between the reference and their own crudes (The Economist, 2009). In addition, oil producers delay announcing the differentials in order to reduce the lags, while also avoid being undercut by their respective competitors. Changes in the global oil prices have far-reaching effects on the domestic economies of all countries, and the fact that countries have little control over the changes in prices, makes the changes necessarily hurtful to the domestic economies. Since the beginning of 2010, commodity prices across the world have risen considerably, following a near 40% increase in the prices of oil. The international increases in the prices of oil occurred towards the close of 2010 to 2012 with the consequential cost-push inflation on the prices of basic commodities including food, metals, agricultural commodities and minerals across the world (Fattouh B. , The Drivers of Oil Prices: The Usefulness and Limitations of Non-Structural Model, the Demand–Supply Framework and Informal Approaches, 2007). In addition, the demand for oil is dependent on not only the United States economy but also all other economies in the world. The demand of major emerging economies including China, Brazil and India, w hich effectively pits the interests of different countries against each other, with the consequent increases in prices, in the event the demand of the world goes up. The recent growth in demand from China has resulted in global increases in fuel prices and the prices other commodities. The energy demand outside the OECD also contributed to the rapid depreciation of the United States dollar, with dire consequences on the ability of the country to import important resources into the country, while at once rendering its exports relatively cheaper (Ripple, 2008). The consequences of the (i) increasing oil prices and (ii) the fluctuating nature of the prices on the domestic economy are dire, with analysts estimating that a $10 increase in the price of oil is capable of reducing the GDP growth by more than 0.5%, within the OECD. In addition, a similar increase is estimated to lead to upwards 0.2% increase in the rate of inflation within the OECD, even with the multipliers used in these models ignoring multiple dynamic effects (The Economist Intellegence Unit, 2012). Other than the actual increases in demand for energy across the world are unsurpassed by the geopolitical issues that have a disruptive effect on the real supply, coupled with changes in the market dynamics. The spare production capacity of Saudi Arabia is insufficient to meet the fluctuations in the supply of other oil producing nations that may be disrupted by political and regional tensions (Tehran Times, 2012). Effectively, the demand and supply forces in the domestic economy are unrelated to the demand and supply forces within the domestic economy, effectively rendering them either too high or too low, for a domestic equilibrium to be reached. Formulae pricing is founded on the key physical benchmarks, including the West Texas Intermediate (WTI), Dated Brent, Dubai and the ASCI price (Fattouh B. , The Drivers of Oil Prices: The Usefulness and Limitations of Non-Structural Model, the Demand–Supply Framework and Informal Approaches, 2007). The benchmark prices are known as the spot market prices, form an important part of the pricing system, not least because producers and traders use them rely on them in setting futures prices, which have an influence on the spot market prices both at present and in the future (Krugman, 2009). In addition, benchmark crude is used by companies and banks in settlement of derivative instruments such as swap contracts. Governments and futures exchanges used benchmark crude for taxation and settlement of financial contracts respectively. Oil-producing countries use different benchmarks depending on the destination of their exports with Iraq for instance using the Brent Crude to export t o Europe, while its Asian and US exports are based on the Dubai-Oman and the WTI respectively. Mexico on the other hand used a weighted averaged of varied benchmarks’ prices to determine their respective exports prices, including the WTI, the Louisiana Light Sweet, the High Sulfur Fuel Oil and Dated Brent. The benchmarks are priced through assessments by the Oil Reporting Agencies, based on the market information and assessments of the quality of oil, but the prices are strict estimates, with variation between different prices (O’Hara, 2001). Further, while the benchmarking principle remains the same, the benchmarks have changed immensely, both in terms of liquidity and the nature of crudes involved in the process of assessment of the value. The Brent Benchmark for instance, has since began including the North Sea Streams Forties, Ekofisk and Oseberg, while Platts Dubai builds in Upper Zakum and Oman. The streams in benchmarks are naturally not identical in quality. This makes the benchmark prices not to reflect the price of a physical stream, but most importantly, to reflect the prices of a constructed index of different physical streams (Rothwell Gomez, 2003). The benchmark crude oil streams have been declining, with far reaching effects on the market. In the United Kingdom for instance, the decline in production of Brent crude in the 1980s from 885,000 b/d to 366,000 b/d in 1986 to 1990, resulted in massive distortions, squeezes and manipulations, with the consequence of Brent crude prices being completely disconnecte d from other crude grades. The problem was alleviated by the comingling of Ninian and Brent crudes to create Brent Blend, coupled with the ceasing of Ninian as a crude stream. Brent Blend did not last too, and with physical production delays, came the fluctuations in the prices of crude oil based on the benchmarks. With the decline in the physical production of the crude components of benchmarks, other crudes have been co-opted into the benchmarks (Rich, Streitfeld, Rampell, 2011). In 2002 for instance, Platts expanded its definition of Dated Brent to include Oserberg and Forties (from the North Sea) in order to facilitate the assessment process as well as the quality of deliverables in multiple forward contracts based on the benchmark. WTI has also been reported to be declining rapidly, with effects on the futures based on the index. Effectively, the declining physical production of benchmark crudes has the consequence of taking with it, the standards that form the basis of oil p rice determination for both the futures markets and the spot markets, owing to the huge influence of futures on the spot markets (World Bank, 2007). Alternative Pricing While the above pricing model should under ideal conditions be functional, but the involvement of high finance and financial innovation has led to exaggerations of prices (Thorne, 2010). The Posted Pricing system that was previously used by the oil companies to set the prices of oil in consultations with the oil producing nations, and in view of the conditions on the market. In this way, the speculative forces in the market would be eliminated. In addition, the oil producing countries would be able to link the physical supplies to the actual demand in the market, effectively reducing the prospects of exploitative speculation. China has repeatedly implemented this system, with limited success, largely because of the heavily innovative financial markets and instruments in the modern world (The Economist, 2011). The Chinese model is founded on the assessment of the costs of purchase of crude oil from the oil exporting prices, including the costs of transportation and other transaction costs in order to These ensure that the role of the private sector in the determination of oil prices can never be under-estimated, regardless with the amount of regulation. In addition, the characteristic inefficiency caused by the slow reaction of governments, coupled with the time lags in forecasting models render the system heavy and impractical (Krugman, 2009). Financial Exchanges, Physical Markets and Speculation Upwards of 60% of oil prices are purely as a result of speculative forces by leading financial institutions, implying that while current oil prices comprise as much as $60 per barrel that derives from speculation, despite the relatively stable demand and supply forces in the previous five years (excluding the emerging economies effect). Hoarding of crude oil, and the arrival of speculative investments backed by the bond markets and securitization into the oil futures has resulted in increasing supplies, which are not passed on to the spot market but instead serve as financial instruments (Fattouh, Kilian, Mahadeva, 2011). The potential of speculators to herd markets into supply shortages in order to profiteer is enormous, especially with the emergence of paper crude of financial derivatives, which have gained acceptance across the financial and oil markets. Financial instruments including Contract for Differences, Brent Forwards, swaps, Brent options, Exchanges for Physicals and o thers are now tradable on exchanges. This has in turn offered easy access, with reduced risk to instruments such as index funds, options, exchange traded funds and futures (Rich, Streitfeld, Rampell, 2011). This has been driven by changing investor preferences in favor of market-based derivatives, which have low transaction costs and risks. Recent studies have shown a high correlation between equity and energy returns, with the most extreme effects being evidenced in periods of financial market booms. The sub-prime markets specter (reckless risk taking due to low risks and lack of physical market bases) is evident in the non-backed markets. While it is impossible to envisage a market without securities, given the central role of crude oil on the economy, it is crucial that financial exchanges are founded on the physical markets (O’Hara, 2001). At present, most hedge funds are reeling from the collapse in profitability of the housing market, moving investments into the oil markets. This in turn fuelled a bubble in the oil market, with increases in the prices of oil futures through the period. Major companies in the European Union and North America hoarded oil, leading to appearance of oil shortages, coupled with the limit credit availability that characterized the global economic crisis. These were exacerbated Lon don ICE Futures and Over the Counter (OTC), which are not regulated, leading to the imprecise figures regarding the dollar value of the expenditures on energy investments. This in turn created and has expanded the speculative space and incentive in the oil market, with the consequence of worsening the difference between the internationally set prices and the domestic prices. This even most significant, with the declining physical production of benchmark crude, which would lead to a disconnect between the actual prices and the oil supplies. Futures Physical Markets Both spot and futures prices are determined in response to the same economic conditions, and should by necessity reflect one another. The price set for futures closely reflects the expectations, whether real or otherwise, of the future supply and demand, which musty by construction be reflected in the spot prices (Smith Searle, 2007). This is the sole intention of benchmarking as well as the pricing models adopted by the oil-exporting countries, which are constantly adjusted in order to fit in with the demand and competitiveness needs of the market. The futures contracts are closed by exporters and traders who resale the oil to the consumers, and to this extent, the demand and supply forces are reflected. However, similar conditions would only prevail, if the demand by the oil traders is driven by the final market needs, and not speculative demand (The Economist, 2009). Speculative demand for oil, and the relative power of financial institutions and the instruments that have emerged in the modern markets have resulted in the creation of artificial markets, which may be manipulated to the benefit of the oil traders and speculators. This occurs through artificial increases in the prices, driven by futures markets that are founded on artificially created expectations of demand and supply. In addition, even if there was no manipulation, squeezes etc, the forecasting formulae that is used to project the futures contracts pricing is independent on whether prices increase or fall (Ripple, 2008). Further, the effect of politics and geopolitical tensions involving oil-producing nations and regions, have a greater effect on speculative and futures markets than the physical markets. While for instance the Iranian, Egyptian and Libyan crises resulted in fears of reduced oil supply to Europe, Asia and the Americas, with the consequent increases in oil prices, the actual reductions in supply have not been significant (Krugman, 2009). However, the pricing models for futures that built in this possibility in turn resulted in prices that did not reflect the physical markets. This is noticeable in periods when supply was increased by both OPEC and non-OPEC nations, which were however, not reflected by reductions in the fuel prices. The United States, which accounts for a quarter of the global oil trade and consumption, has in the recent past offered a clear example of how oil futures distort the physical trade. Traders sale the dollar short, while selling oil long, leading to a fall in the current prices at which they acquire oil and hoard, to supply it during shortages (Eicher, Mutti, Turnovsky, 2009). The geopolitical tensions and the prominent role played by the speculators easily masks the role played by multiple other players in the industry that however, have an influence on the spot and futures prices. These players include the oil exploration and extraction companies, the refineries and the entire petrochemical industries among others. This adds to OPEC oligopoly, which does however comprise multiple oil rich nations that compete against each other to ensure the competitiveness of their oil. Iran and Saudi Arabia’s Arab Light for instance are of the quality, land go for about the same prices (Thorne, 2010). However, the two nations must compete for markets abroad. Effectively, it is in the interest of every country to make certain that their prices are as low as possible. However, the intermediaries that deliver the oil to the final consumers have an impact on the prices beyond the control of any one player. Effectively, the international pricing system is the only vi able pricing system, open to OPEC and other agents. Conclusion Benchmarks represent the most important pricing system, but ht emergency of financial derivatives based on oil, have led to the distortion of the oil prices, coupled with the lack of transparency in the industry, which has in turn resulted in the gap between the actual and the futures prices (Eicher, Mutti, Turnovsky, 2009). A lesson from the sub-prime mortgage crisis is apt for the oil market. While the recent global economic crisis was triggered by the crush of the sub-prime mortgage market in the United States, the actual problem that precipitated the creation of bubble and the subsequent crush was the emergence of bond markets. These in turn resulted in excessive credit on the markets, with the markets actually losing the physical market back up, which were replaced with tradable securities, fuelling a bubble that ultimately haunted the global economy. References List Eicher, T. S., Mutti, J., Turnovsky, M. ,2009, International Economics. London: Taylor Francis. Fattouh, B. ,2011, An Anatomy of the Crude Oil Pricing An Anatomy of the Crude Oil Pricing An Anatomy of the Crude Oil Pricing An Anatomy of the Crude Oil Pricing An An Anatomy of the Crude Oil Pricing System . Oxford: Oxford University Press. Fattouh, B. ,2007, The Drivers of Oil Prices: The Usefulness and Limitations of Non-Structural Model, the Demand–Supply Framework and Informal Approaches. University of London . Fattouh, B., Kilian, L., Mahadeva, L. ,2011, The Role of SPeculation in the Oil Markets: What have we Learnt so Far? Oxford: Oxford Institute of Energy Studies. Krugman, p. ,2009, he Return of Depression Economics and the Crisis of 2008. New York: W.W. Norton Company Limited. O’Hara, P. A. ,2001, Insider trading in financial markets: legality, ethics, Efficiency. International Journal of Social Economics, Vol. 28 No. 10/11/12, . Rich, M., Streitfeld, D., Rampell, C. ,2011, Feb 24, Rising Oil Prices Pose New Threat to U.S. Economy. Retrieved October 12, 2011, from http://www.nytimes.com/2011/02/25/business/economy/25econ.html?pagewanted=all Ripple, R. ,2008, Futures Trading, What is Excessive. June 7: Oil and Gas Journal. Rothwell, G., Gomez, T. ,2003, Electricity Economics. Boston: Wiley. Smith, S. J., Searle, B. ,2007, The Blackwell Companion to the Economics of Housing: The Housing Wealth of Nations. London: John Wiley Sons. Tang, K., Wei, X. ,2010, Index Investing and the Financialization of Commodities. NBER Working Paper 16385: National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc. Tehran Times. ,2012, May 11, Japan considering government insurance for Iran crude. Retrieved May 12, 2012, from www.tehrantimes.com: http://tehrantimes.com/economy-and-business/97737-japan-considering-government-insurance-for-iran-crude The Economist. ,2011, Oct 25, How the economic slowdown has changed consumer spending in America. Retrieved Dec 6, 2011, from the economist: http://www.economist.com/blogs/dailychart/2011/10/us-consumer-spending The Economist Intellegence Unit. ,2012, The GCC in 2020: Outlook for the Gulf and the Global Economy. The Economist Intellegence Unit . The Economist. ,2009, Aug 7, On the Rebound?: Asia’s emerging economies are recovering much more quickly than economies in other parts of the world. Can they keep it up? . Retrieved April 29, 2012, from www.theeconomist.com: http://www.economist.com/node/14209825 The Economist. ,2011, March 3, The Price of Fear: A complex chain of cause and effect links the Arab world’s turmoil to the health of the world economy . Retrieved July 13, 2012, from www.economist.com: http://www.economist.com/node/18285768 The Tehran Times. ,2012, May 11, Iran oil production rises despite sanctions, OPEC says. Retrieved May 12, 2012, from www.tehrantimes.com: http://tehrantimes.com/economy-and-business/97739-iran-oil-production-rises-despite-sanctions-opec-says Thorne, S. ,2010, A User guide to Platts Assessment Processes Presentation at the Platts Crude Oil Methodology Forum 2010. London. World Bank. ,2007, August 18, FInance for All? The Pitfalls of Expanding Access. World Bank Policy Research Report .

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

My Philosophy of Education Free Essays

I believe that progressivism educational philosophy most closely matches my educational ideals. In my opinion based on the progressivism educational philosophy, the purpose of education is to enable students to learn useful knowledge that has meaning to them in the future. Thus, the most useful education for students is the skill of â€Å"learning how to learn†. We will write a custom essay sample on My Philosophy of Education or any similar topic only for you Order Now When students understand the methods of learning they will be capable of learning useful and meaningful knowledge for the endurance of their lives. Successfully educated students will have made the transition from having their learning experiences guided by a teacher to being able to guide themselves through the process of learning. Moreover, successfully educated students will not only have developed the competence to learn, but will also have developed the character necessary to learn. Because my philosophy of education is progressivism, I want to focus on the whole child rather the content or the teacher (myself). In order to be ready for the real world these children need to be taught about the real world they are growing into. In accordance with progressivism philosophy, I believe that in order to meet the educational goals previously described. The curriculum has to be focused on the students rather than on the knowledge the students are attempting to acquire. The students’ needs- academic, social, and physical must be taken into consideration in order to make the learning useful and meaningful to the students. Thus, the students and the teacher must work together to determine the curriculum. Moreover, the curriculum must focus on the methods of learning rather than the content so that the students will be able to develop the character and competency for learning how to learn. I believe that the teachers teaching style must embrace the natural curiosity and desire to solve problems the student possess. By engaging students in group activities that intrigue their interests, their students will naturally engage themselves in learning the knowledge necessary to find solutions to problems and satisfy their desire to understand the world around them. An example of this type of teaching would be having students learn basic knowledge found typically in social studies, math, or language classes through a role playing activity. The students could develop a mock town in which each child would choose a job they found interesting. After days of interacting as a mock town, the students could discuss the problems that evolved in their mock town. The teacher would guide the discussion toward social, financial, and communication issues. The students then could be given the mission, with guidance from the teacher to find possible solutions for the problem they discussed. As the students find solutions they will also be basic knowledge taught in social studies, math, and language classes. Finally the students could discuss the real world they live in and the types of problems and possible solutions that could make their world a better place. An activity such as this or other field trip types of activities would not only provide useful and meaningful knowledge to the students, but would also help the students comprehend the practical application of the knowledge learning, the process of learning, and method for how problems can be solved. In accordance with progressivism philosophy, I believe that the role of the teacher is to facilitate the learning experience. The teacher is a resource person and a coin inquirer rather than a taskmaster or authority figure who feeds students facts to be recited when tested. A metaphor for a progressivism teacher would be a tour guide for tourists. The tour guide allows the tourists to embrace their experience by encouraging them to explore things that will be fun, memorable, and intriguing. The guide answers questions by directing the tourists to places where they can find answers. The tour guide makes the experience so enjoyable for the tourists that the tourists are left with the desire to come back for more exploration in the future. I believe that the responsibility of the students is to develop naturally by working together as they attempt to solve problems they discover while participating in interesting activities guided by their teacher. As the teacher exposes the students to information in subjects such as science, technology, literature, and the arts, the students will understand that knowledge in these areas will remain current and useful in their lives. Thus, the primary responsibility of the students is to participate in activities and develop the skills and character necessary to understand the process and methods of learning. In my opinion, the progressivism educational philosophy best fits me as a result of my learning style. I find that I comprehend and enjoy what I learn more when I am participating in learning activities. I also believe that I understand how to apply what I have learned more effectively if I am able to experience the practical application of the knowledge I am being taught. How to cite My Philosophy of Education, Essay examples My Philosophy of Education Free Essays I believe that we are all active learners, constantly absorbing new data from our environments, using our minds to merge the creative with the actual, and the fundamental with the ideal. Active learning is defined as learning by being physically and mentally engaged in activities. As the teacher, my goal is to actively teach the children while maintaining a positive yet helpful attitude, in a low pressure and respectful atmosphere. We will write a custom essay sample on My Philosophy of Education or any similar topic only for you Order Now Personally, I think of the relationship between the teacher and the student as a bow and arrow, with the teacher [bow] gently steadying and providing the stable structure to guide the student [arrow] along on its path, gracefully arcing through the air. For my classroom, I would like to create a warm and educational environment that provides intellectual as well as emotional support for the child and their family, while demonstrating the sound skills absorbed in class. Ideally I would aim to balance the â€Å"old school† and the â€Å"new school† theories of education. To achieve this atmosphere, I would incorporate aspects of the High/Scope Method, Erikson’s theory of Psychosocial Development, Maslow’s Multiple Intelligences, and sensory materials prevalent in the Montessori School. Classroom Environment Geared towards the current stages of development of the child, my program would utilize the broad and realistic educational experiences that are designed to promote a constructive process of learning. Theme-related material will serve to peak their interest and establish the link between the core aspects of the lesson and real-life applications. A â€Å"center† based classroom set up encourages children to interact with others in developmentally appropriate play and inspires creativity. Maintaining a daily schedule allows for children to get accustomed to routine and also for teachers to correctly determine the children’s individual schedules and learning processes. Focusing on the child’s key experiences will serve to foster development of important skills and abilities. Incorporating work time, recall time and cleanup time further fosters the development of routine-based practices and will help teach the importance of self accountability. Acting out the routines of adults, the children will learn how to manage their time as well as take care of their surroundings. Interactions with classmates will provide the necessary social skills and establish methods of early conflict resolution practices. In order to properly engage the child’s mind, the classroom must be appropriate, safe, interactive, organized, and embracing to the different cultures and ethnicities present in today’s society. Erikson’s Theory of Psychosocial Development According to Erik Erikson, â€Å"Hope is both the earliest and the most indispensable virtue inherent in the state of being alive. If life is to be sustained hope must remain, even where confidence is wounded, trust impaired. † Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development occurs in stages, and takes the child’s entire social interactions and life experiences into account. According to Erikson, our personality is shaped not only by our natural disposition, but more so by the society that we live in. Erikson’s theory centers around the concept of ego identity, the sense of ourselves that we develop based upon our social interactions, and the concept of ego strength or ego quality, which is the sense of mastery or inadequacy that we feel after a certain stage in our life. Each stage is like a series of mini-tests, and our ability to pass or fail these tests either strengthens our resolve and personal confidence, or forces us to withdraw and evaluate ourselves more intensely. Erikson believed each stage was tied to a certain part of our development, and conflicts encountered would serve as training to help us develop and hone our psychological quality. Preschoolers fall into Erikson’s third stage of development, â€Å"Initiative versus Guilt. † During this stage, children attempt to control their world through social play and other childhood games, asserting dominance and taking on leadership roles. It is during these early school years, children begin to feel pride and accomplishment, especially in peer-measured tasks. Parents who are involved with their child’s school activities and interested in their early academics help enforce these feelings of pride, and establish a bond based on encouragement and positive reinforcement. Conversely, children who receive little or no encouragement from parents, teachers, or peers will instead doubt their ability to be successful. Howard Gardener’s Multiple Intelligences Howard Gardener believed that people are smart in multiple ways, utilizing intelligences in eight specific areas. The eight areas are visual/spatial, verbal/linguistic, math/logical, body/kinesthic, musical/rhythmic, intrapersonal, interpersonal and naturalistic. Visual/spatial skills relate to the visual realm and how things are perceived or seen. I will focus on arts and crafts that appeal to the visual aspect of learning, and how the visual perception relates to the actual reality. Verbal/linguistic skills cover the languages, including speaking, writing and listening. My activities for enforcing these skills could be creative story writing, listening to foreign languages, reading story relating to concept material, doing word searches, crosswords, or practicing handwriting. Math/logical skills cover the problem solving and logical thought processes, so my planning will include activities such as board games, matching or card games, word or number puzzles, bingo and pattern associations. Body/kinesthic skills involve movement of the body, which I will enforce through exercise, dance or sports activities, as well as recess and certain games. Musical/rhythmic skills tie in nicely with body movement, so I will incorporate singing, dancing or playing an instrument. Intrapersonal skills are associated with our feelings, values and attitudes, both intrinsic and learned, and teachers can create activities where children can discuss differences in background, family structure and culture that may influence these skills. Interpersonal skills, how we use our feelings during interaction with others, can be honed with group activities like dramatic role play and class projects. Finally, to focus on naturalistic skills, the logical process of classification and hierarchy of things, my assignments will include tasks such as putting things in order by category, pattern identification or sorting objects with their type and purpose. Montessori’s Sensory Materials Founded on the ideas and practices of Maria Montessori, I would utilize the core principles of her methods in my daily routine. Keeping my promises and staying on schedule will help to create a respectful atmosphere, and keeping the lesson plans fresh and interactive will encourage learning through nvironment. The prepared and organized centers and related lesson activities will serve to support children in their self-education (a. k. a. auto-education) phase, and allow children freedom and choice of activity. By teaching skills related to everyday life, such as walking in an orderly fashion or carrying objects to the table, the children will be able to practice self care skills. I will provide s ensory materials that are designed to promote learning through the five senses, thus creating an awareness of the body and its ability to learn from real life. By encouraging role play, the children can prepare for adult occupation and construct their own version of the world around them. Furthermore, I will address the demands of diversity and disabiltilty in the classroom by using mixed age groups, promoting individual play within a supportive classroom, repetition of skills and acknowledging sensory perceptions and abilities. The Montessori influence will also be evident in my classroom setup, as I desire child-sized furniture with bright and coordinated colors to promote aesthetic awareness of the child’s environment. Identity of a Preschooler A preschooler is a most usually a child between the ages of three to five, and has not yet entered kindergarten. During this stage, children are egocentric, preoperational, and unable to properly manage their time or self regulatory skills. Most theorists stress the emphasis of play during this stage as the most effective method of implementing solid learning practices and skill awareness. According to Piaget, play promotes cognitive schemes and enhances cognitive development. By maintaining a daily schedule, the preschooler can adjust to the naturally occurring activities and still maintain their individual learning pace. Montessori believed that play was the equivalent of a child’s work and their preschool was equal to an adult’s place of work. Play provides for unintentional yet effective learning. Free play (a. k. a. informal play) helps broaden the child’s creative aspects, and allows for development of personal interests. Symbolic (pretend) and constructive play help children build and test theories, while functional and outdoor play enforce muscular activities. Children in this age group are open to learning, and are constantly questioning the elements of their surroundings. Assessments – Formal versus Informal My major concern with assessment methods is that the spectrum for what is acceptable seems to vary from state to state or center to center. My goal is to streamline the assessment process and incorporate both informal and formal methods. Since assessment goes hand in hand with observation, I will encourage the active participation of the child in their own education, incorporating my own version of evaluating the child. My daily planning of activities and structured curriculum will allow for careful and accurate observation of the child. In my experience with teaching preschool, children learn best when given a project or activity that reinforces the concepts learned that day. I would make every attempt to keep daily notes on each child’s behavior, attitude and progress in the classroom. By noting individual interests and preferences, I can identify the methods that best suit each child’s learning curve. As for formal assessments, standardized testing is one of the most relied upon methods for assessing a child and interpreting their skill levels to determine if the child is ready to proceed or be held back. Additionally, it is important for me to consider not only the regulated standards, but also each child’s individual background. I feel that this consideration for the child’s individual situation will allow for a more accurate assessment. Although I feel that portfolio assessment can sometimes be too broad and open to interpretation, I do think that keeping artistic evidence of the child’s skill achievements can serve not only to pinpoint the progress of the child, but also as a confidence and self-esteem builder for the child. Children are proud to show off their accomplishments and by displaying projects the child will learn to trust in their own natural abilities. Standards and Goals / Ideal Environment Appropriate goals that I would like each child to successfully master or at least become relatively proficient in are self-help skills, an awareness of healthy habits, a desire to learn, evident language and literacy development, and mostly a strong sense of character. I would like them to be able to express different areas of interest, including music and the arts, methods of learning, and interactive games. Children that are not able to grasp the major content areas will be assessed more in-depth, and a conference with the parent(s) will be scheduled. Ideally, I will create a healthy, respectful, supportive and challenging environment that also maintains the developmentally appropriate practices and incorporates all children into the classroom learning environment. I would like for the parents to be involved and aware of their children’s learning practices. I will assign occasional homework, both to emphasize content covered in class and also to provide parents the opportunity to help their children learn. I believe that parents who take an active role in their child’s education have a more positive and lasting impression on their child. Because of this, I will work to include the parents whenever possible, and keep them imformed of their child’s progress, no matter the speed of progression. Finally, and perhaps most importantly, I desire to implement a program that is easy for parents to replicate within their home life, thus creating a unified method of child learning that can only serve to ease the learning process for the child. How to cite My Philosophy of Education, Papers

Friday, May 1, 2020

The Warehouse Receipts Law free essay sample

The rate of storage charges, (f) A description of the goods or of the packages containing them, (g) The signature of the warehouseman which may be made by his authorized agent, (h) If the receipt is issued for goods of which the warehouseman is owner, either solely or jointly or in common with others, the fact of such ownership, and (i) A statement of the amount of advances made and of liabilities incurred for which the warehouseman claims a lien. If the precise amount of such advances made or of such liabilities incurred is, at the time of the issue of, unknown to the warehouseman or to his agent who issues it, a statement  of the fact that advances have been made or liabilities incurred and the purpose thereof is sufficient. A warehouseman shall be liable to any person injured thereby for all damages caused by the omission from a negotiable receipt of any of the terms herein required. We will write a custom essay sample on The Warehouse Receipts Law or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Sec. 3. Form of receipts. — What terms may be inserted. — A warehouseman may insert in a receipt issued by him any other terms and conditions provided that such terms and conditions shall not: (a) Be contrary to the provisions of this Act. In any wise impair his obligation to exercise that degree of care in the safe-keeping of the goods entrusted to him which is reasonably careful man would exercise in regard to similar goods of his own. Sec. 4. Definition of non-negotiable receipt. — A receipt in which it is stated that the goods received will be delivered to the depositor or to any other specified person, is a non-negotiable receipt. Sec. 5. Definition of negotiable receipt. — A receipt in which it is stated that the goods received will be delivered to the bearer or to the order of any person named in such receipt is a negotiable receipt. No provision shall be inserted in a negotiable receipt that it is non-negotiable. Such provision, if inserted shall be void. Sec. 6. Duplicate receipts must be so marked. — When more than one negotiable receipt is issued for the same goods, the word duplicate shall be plainly placed upon the face of every such receipt, except the first one issued. A warehouseman shall be liable for all damages caused by his failure so to do to any one who purchased the subsequent receipt for value supposing it to be an original, even though the purchase be after the delivery of the goods by the warehouseman to the holder of the original

Sunday, March 22, 2020

Weight Loss Essays - Obesity, Diets, Dietetics,

Weight Loss About one-third of Americans are extremely over-weight, which may be why crash dieting is beginning to plague America. It's estimated that Americans alone spend 80-100 billion dollars on weight loss tactics. People go on these diets to get quick results but are these results hurting them more than helping? The answer is Yes! The only way to safely and effectively lose weight is through old-fashioned exercise and the right diet. You cannot successfully lose weight by simply cutting food from your diet or taking some pills, it is necessary to work for your results. Without depriving your body of necessary nutrients through dieting, you can lose fat and get the body you've always dreamed of, or at least one you're more comfortable with. The quote "The effects of the current obsession with dieting can be devastating", said by Mr. Woodworth, a long time exercise and nutrition expert, summarizes the dangers of dieting. The many dangerous methods of losing weight: so called "dieting" or starvation/fad diets, pills and drugs, over-exercising, surgery, and eating disorders, have taken many casualties. Many people go on "diets", a word so commonly misused, to get quick results of weight loss. Perhaps the most common is minor starvation and fad dieting. This method is when people become over concerned with calorie intake. Many deaths have been associated with low calorie diets. By trying to shed pounds simply by cutting all fat from the diet greatly increases the risk of getting cancer, heart disease, and other health problems. That "low-fat" trap gets people hooked on reduced-fat snacks or possibly not eating at all. So now the body is being deprived of necessary nutrients not available in any pill or liquid form. Yes cutting fat and cholesterol reduces the risk of heart disease and diabetes, but nutrient poor diets have an even larger risk of getting those diseases along with many others. Of course a large percent of dieters will lose weight but they will feel depressed afterward and gain back even more than before they started the diet. The reason why is because they are losing "healthy" weight along with the fat they were hoping to rid of. In an infomercial with Tony Little, he showed a graph of what the body loses when someone goes on a diet. By cutting back on foods, the body becomes deprived of very important nutrients. Then when it seems you are losing weight, what you are actually losing is fat AND MUSCLE. Many times, more lean muscle than fat will be lost. And although they may look slimmer because their size is smaller, they are actually weaker and more susceptible to injuries due to losing "healthy" weight. Healthy weight is muscle and bone weight, the things that support your structure and enable you to perform rigorous activities. A lot of the time "healthy" weight is misinterpreted, especially in females. Which leads to an amazing fact that 62% of women and 44% of men that are dieting aren't even overweight! But they are misled when they step on the bathroom scale and "My God" look what it says! They are not realizing that muscle outweighs fat over 2:1. Therefor, many people may think they are fat even though they may be healthy. I myself am an example of that. On a height and age chart it says my ideal weight for my height is 155 pounds. I am 168, so does that mean that I am overweight? Not necessarily. Charts and stuff are made for averages and trends because when doing a body fat testing I had only 10.8% body fat which is below the average for people my age and size. So the bathroom scale scares many people into believing that they need to lose weight when it may not be necessary. On top of overweight people dieting we also have healthy people dieting, both of which are extremely dangerous. Thus, the fad diet/starvation method should be completely avoided because simple "dieting" is just a stepping stone that may lead to much more serious things that become life changing or life threatening.. What started as a simple "diet" may have progressed into another dangerous way of losing weight through pills or drugs and eating disorders. How wonderful it would be if we could all take a couple of pills a day and not worry what else we may eat all while obtaining that body we yearn for. Unfortunately, we don't have that pill and probably never will so avoid the dangerous imitations out there. What is not told

Thursday, March 5, 2020

Reflecting realities of United States in the late 19th century

Reflecting realities of United States in the late 19th century Introduction In the late 19th century, many immigrants flooded into American cities, in search of green pastures. While others run from civil war, some were in search of wealth and the start of a new life.[1] The population figure grew rapidly in urban cities as a result of the immigrants.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Reflecting realities of United States in the late 19th century specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Many immigrants were rendered homeless and urban crime increased as a result of poverty and an increase of slums. This was the shocking revelation among the immigrants who had come in search of a better life. This paper seeks to study how Horatio Alger, in his book Ragged Dick that reflects the realities of urban life, economic security and social mobility in the late 19th century. Urban life Most people found the city remarkable due to the high capacity buildings and the American cities had expanded thoug h haphazardly. The leaders then began to call for some order and organization of the cities to provide a plan for the congesting cities.[2] As both the buildings and parks were increased, the numbers of slums were also increasing. Housing was one of the greatest challenges faced by the new city dwellers. Most of the immigrants had come with no money and could not afford housing in the city or in the suburbs. The tenements later became popular and turned to slum dwellings due to the overpopulation and poor conditions of living.[3] As more immigrants kept streaming in the tenements became more over populated, since the building capacity was not expanded. Transportation also was a challenge in urban areas due to the increase of population. The cities had not been prepared to harbor such large populations and now that the new population was city dwellers, the people had to struggle for the limited number of transportation. The increase in urban population was one challenge that authorit ies were not well equipped to handle. Over population caused adequate access to public services such as Medicare and good housing. As a result, problems like outbreak of diseases kept recurring, and it was uncontrollable due to the poor living conditions most of the people lived in. Crime was also on the increase with high rates of unemployment and the desperation to survive. Gangs were formed in metropolitans were crime was common as a means to make ends meet. The schools around also lacked capacity to take in the immigrant’s children and the government felt pressure to respond to the situation.[4] Social mobility During the civil war, there was a lot of immigration with many immigrants coming from abroad. Some of the immigrants came from Latin America, Canada, Europe, China and Japan, with Europe carrying the greatest numbers.[5] Most of the Europeans who migrated to America came in with some education and enough money to support them.Advertising Looking for essay o n history? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The Germans and Scandinavians arrived through major ports of the Atlantic coast. However, the rest of the immigrants came in with lack of both capital and a good education. Some of the immigrants coming in hardly spoke English and with lack of proper education they worked in unskilled jobs.[6] The influx of foreigners into America led to the founding of immigration restriction league that vetted all immigrants coming in through the various ports. The government responded and set screening mechanisms among the immigrants. The officials would screen immigrants based on literacy levels, and other standards such as health status and native background.[7] Congress at that time barred the Chinese from entry and tagged them as undesirable candidates. Other candidates denied access was the paupers, mentally challenged and ex-convicts from other states.[8] The government imposed tax charge t o every person admitted to limit the number of immigrants into the state. This was to regulate the number of immigrants to ensure that the public resources were not exhausted.[9] Adjusting in the city life however, was not simple. The various ethnicities formed ethnic groups to help each other in the transition process.[10] The communities lived close to each other forming ethnic ghettos, forming close ties with their ethnic countries. The communities kept their cultures as they also adopted the new cultures. Industrialization however, led to assimilation of the different ethnic groups, this was a time industries were developing in the cities and most immigrants were hired to work in these industries.[11] The Europeans for example felt superior because they were more skilled than most of the ethnic groups like the Irish immigrants.[12] Despite the various differences the immigrants shared the same experiences of living in urban areas and facing the same experience of urban life. The natives however, encouraged assimilation the more in the various settings.[13] Schools for example, taught in English and insisted that all classes should be conducted in English. Employers in both private and public institution also looked for English-speaking employees, and this forced most immigrants to learn English to secure jobs in the various companies.[14] The stores sold only American products and this forced the immigrants to adapt to using American products. They also were assimilated in the American way of worship; most religious leaders were Native Americans and practiced their native religion.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Reflecting realities of United States in the late 19th century specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Economic security Economic security was an issue of concern among individuals who had just immigrated to America.[15] Most people were looking forward to accumulating enough wealth and create opportunities for their fellow colleagues back at home[16] .The well-to-do credited their wealth to the hard work they had put and they took advantage of their early arrival to form monopolies in the capital industry. These businessmen rooted out competition in the market place and put controls to ensure that they still got their profit returns. Alger’s ragged Dick captured how the immigrants had to face desirable hardships just to make it in the city. The tycoons who owned industries paid the immigrants poorly and made them work under poor conditions and for longer hours.[17] The tycoons took advantage of the high unemployment rates and the immigrant’s lack of formal education. The tycoons posed a threat to society because even though they paid the laborers, they ran the economy. The businessmen overcharged for goods and service and the people had no choice but to pay for them, as the economy was heavily run by a monopoly.[18] Most immigrants had escaped povert y and oppression from their native land only to find themselves in the same circumstances. In the turn of the century new immigrants began streaming in and most of them from Europe. The immigrants had the privilege of some form of education and after undergoing poor working conditions and low wages the immigrants attempted to fight back. The immigrants began forming small crafted unions but they brought little success. However the immigrants were undeterred and they tried to form a nation labor organization.[19] The steel and ironworkers formed a strong association, and were able to establish the first successful strike. The laborers demanded better pay and an improvement in working conditions in the industries. This alleviated to some point the living and working conditions of the laborers, who were also able to afford the cost of living in urban areas.[20] With the great recession after the civil war the increase in wages hardly counted and many laborers later lost their jobs with no compensation. This was not what many immigrants had bargained for; most of the laborers had immigrated with the hope of making money and returning home. Despite the labor unions and increase of wages the immigrants felt the need to acquire a more secure source of income to sustain the expensive urban lifestyle.[21] Conclusion After the civil war many immigrants moved to American urban cities in search of greener pastures. Most were running away from poverty and harsh conditions back in their native countries. However, on arrival the immigrants faced great challenges unforeseen to them and a lot of them were frustrated.Advertising Looking for essay on history? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Having to face unemployment, poor working conditions, keeping in tenements and racial segregation was in the least of their expectations. While some gave up along the way other became prosperous and assimilated to the urban life they envisioned. Bibliography Brinkley, Alan. The unfinished nation: the concise history of the American people. New York, McGrawHill, 2009. 453 Davidson, J. West, and Mark H. Lytle.After the Fact: The Art of Historical Detection. Michigan: McGraw-Hill, 2009.204 Davidson, J. West, and Mark H. Lytle.After the Fact: The Art of Historical Detection. Michigan: McGraw-Hill, 2009.204 Alger,Horatio. Ragged Dick. New York: W. W. Norton Co., 2008.28 Davidson, J. West, and Mark H. Lytle.After the Fact: The Art of Historical Detection. Michigan: McGraw-Hill, 2009.205 . Alger,Horatio. Ragged Dick. New York: W. W. Norton Co., 2008. 34 . Davidson, J. West, and Mark H. Lytle.After the Fact: The Art of Historical Detection. Michigan: McGraw-Hill, 2009. 207 Brinkley, Alan . The unfinished nation: the concise history of the American people. New York, Mc-Graw Hill, 2009.458 Davidson, J. West, and Mark H. Lytle.After the Fact: The Art of Historical Detection. Michigan: McGraw-Hill, 2009, 207 Brinkley,Alan. The Unfinished Nation: The Concise History of the American People. New York: Mc-Graw Hill, 2009.436 Davidson, J. West, and Mark H. Lytle.After the Fact: The Art of Historical Detection. Michigan: McGraw-Hill, 2009. 207 Brinkley,Alan. The Unfinished Nation: The Concise History of the American People. New York: Mc-Graw Hill, 2009.454 Brinkley, Alan. The unfinished nation: the concise history of the American people. (New York, Mc-Graw Hill, 2009) 458 Brinkley,Alan. The Unfinished Nation: The Concise History of the American People. New York: Mc-Graw Hill, 2009. 458 Alger,Horatio. Ragged Dick. New York: W. W. Norton Co., 2008. 34 Brinkley,Alan. The Unfinished Nation: The Concise History of the American People. New York: Mc-Graw Hill, 2009.448 Davidson, J. West, and Mark H. Lytle.After the Fact: The Art of Historical Detection. Michigan: McGraw-Hill, 2009. 211 Brinkley,Alan. The Unfinished Nation: The Concise History of the American People. New York: Mc-Graw Hill, 2009.437 Alger,Horatio. Ragged Dick. New York: W. W. Norton Co., 2008.47 Brinkley, Alan. The unfinished nation: the concise history of the American people. (New York, Mc-Graw Hill, 2009) 445 Brinkley,Alan. The Unfinished Nation: The Concise History of the American People. New York: Mc-Graw Hill, 2009.449

Tuesday, February 18, 2020

English Composition Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 3

English Composition - Essay Example Now I understand that gay marriages are to be considered an essential human rights issue. It could raise the social statues and economic stability of the sexual minority of gays and lesbians. The civil rights aspect of it stems from the question of equality for all individuals. Homosexuals have to be treated on an equal basis in the socio-cultural sphere, and be provided equal opportunities to participate in all possible areas of public domain. The narrow-minded arguments against it by religious sects and homophobes have to be addressed and disproved so as to defend the basic rights of homosexuals. One may need to redefine the parameters of family structure to accommodate gay marriages, but that will only strengthen the possibilities of tackling the issues of dissent in the general social structure. A few of the controversial issues related to gay marriages have to be addressed and analyzed to make this view clear. The real reasons behind the arguments against gay marriages go deeper to the levels of ignorance and lack of proper understanding among human beings. Many are misinformed regarding the nature of gay relationships and consider it as something entirely different from heterosexual relationships. Gay relationships are often perceived to be all about sex, but that is hardly the issue. The reality is that homosexuality is based on mutual attraction, love and affection, very much like in the case of heterosexuality. If the commonly held misconceptions regarding gay relationships can be eradicated, the prospect of gay marriages can be understood clearly. The false presumption that a marriage can take place only between a man and woman has to be uprooted. Nor does one have to fall for the argument that the basic purpose of marriage is procreation. The element of immorality attached to gay relationships is also